Category Archives: CFR

No further “exceptional circumstances” test for Zambrano carers in deportation cases

Robinson (Jamaica) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2020] UKSC 53 (16 December 2020)  This appeal raised the issue whether a third-country national (TCN) otherwise benefiting from the derivative right to reside within EU territory pursuant to the … Continue reading

Posted in Brexit, CFR, Children, CJEU, Court of Appeal, European Union, Jamaica, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

Upper Tribunal: An extended family member must demonstrate continuous dependency on the sponsor

Chowdhury (Extended family members: dependency) [2020] UKUT 188 (IAC) (29 April 2020)  The appellant, Mr Chowdhury, was a Bangladeshi national who tried to enter the UK as a student with entry clearance for three years. Upon interview at immigration control … Continue reading

Posted in Appeals, Bangladesh, Brexit, CFR, Citizens Directive, CJEU, EUSS, Free Movement, Judicial Review, Tribunals, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , | 1 Comment

Zambrano carers: The test of compulsion is a practical test

Patel v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2019] UKSC 59 (16 December 2019) Addressing the scope of the substance of rights test devised in Zambrano (C-34/09, EU:C:2011:124), whereby a non-member state national (or a third country national “TCN”) … Continue reading

Posted in Appendix EU, Article 8, Brexit, CFR, Citizenship and Nationality, CJEU, European Union, EUSS, Human Rights, Settlement, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Does EIG satisfy Dublin III on detaining asylum seekers? 

In Hemmati & Ors [2018] EWCA Civ 2122, the Court of Appeal held by a majority that the detention of five asylum seekers pending removal to other Member States had been unlawful because neither the Enforcement Instructions and Guidance Chapter 55 … Continue reading

Posted in Article 5, Asylum, CFR, CJEU, Court of Appeal, Detention, ECHR, European Union, Judicial Review, Lady Hale, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Should the UK provide MLA to the US for the death penalty? 

In the Divisional Court, the mother of the accused ISIS terrorist Shafee El Sheikh, Maha El Gizouli failed in her challenge against the Home Secretary’s decision to provide mutual legal assistance (MLA) to the US without requiring an assurance that … Continue reading

Posted in Article 3, Article 8, CFR, Citizenship and Nationality, Court of Appeal, ECHR, European Union, Human Rights Act, Judicial Review, Syria, Terrorism, UKSC, United States | Tagged , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Has Chavez-Vilchez altered the approach to derivative claims for residence in the UK?

Sarmiento and Sharpston view Zambrano (C-34/09, EU:C:2011:124), which caused a stir because of the substance of rights test, as a “high-water mark” in the CJEU’s jurisprudence. Thereafter, the court began to suffer from “citizenship exhaustion” and the “test was shelved … Continue reading

Posted in Appendix EU, Article 8, CFR, Children, Citizens Directive, CJEU, Court of Appeal, ECHR, European Union, Families, Immigration Rules, Netherlands, Pakistan, Settlement, Tribunals, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Free Movement and Kafala: CJEU Judgment in SM (Algeria)

SM (Enfant place sous kafala algerienne) (Citizenship of the European Union – “Direct descendant” – Judgment) (C-129/18, EU:C:2019:248) The CJEU has confirmed AG Campos Sánchez-Bordona’s opinion that a child in the guardianship of an EU citizen under the kafala system … Continue reading

Posted in Adoption, Article 8, Brexit, CFR, Children, Citizens Directive, CJEU, ECHR, ECOs, Entry Clearance, European Union, Families, Free Movement, Guardianship, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

AG Campos Sánchez-Bordona: Kafala children are not direct descendants but are other family members

SM v Entry Clearance Officer, UK Visa Section (C-129/18, EU:C:2019:140) In response to the reference made by the Supreme Court in SM (Algeria) [2018] UKSC 9 (see here), AG Campos Sánchez-Bordona advised the CJEU to declare that a child in the … Continue reading

Posted in Adoption, Article 8, CFR, Children, Citizens Directive, CJEU, Court of Appeal, ECHR, European Union, Free Movement, Lady Hale, UKSC, UNCRC | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

No death penalty assurance is necessary for ISIS ‘Beatles’

R (El Gizouli) v Secretary of State for the Home Department [2019] EWHC 60 (Admin) (18 January 2019) In a rolled-up hearing, Lord Burnett LCJ and Garnham J granted permission for judicial review in these proceedings but their Lordships dismissed … Continue reading

Posted in Article 3, Article 8, CFR, ECHR, Human Rights Act, International Law, Iran, Judicial Review, Politics, Rule of law, Terrorism, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

Section 67: Court of Appeal on UASC and Procedural Fairness

R (Help Refugees Ltd) v The Secretary of State for Home Department & Anor [2018] EWCA Civ 2098 (03 October 2018) So that they may properly challenge adverse decision-making by way of judicial review, the Court of Appeal has held … Continue reading

Posted in Asylum, CFR, Children, Consultation(s), Court of Appeal, European Union, Immigration Act 2016, Immigration Rules, Judicial Review, Persecution, Politics, Refugee Convention, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Coman Case: Same-Sex Marriage and Free Movement Law

The CJEU has held that the term “spouse” within the meaning of the provisions of EU law on freedom of residence for EU citizens and members of their family includes spouses of the same sex. Despite the member states’ freedom to … Continue reading

Posted in Article 8, CFR, Citizens Directive, Citizenship and Nationality, CJEU, ECHR, European Union, Free Movement, Spouses | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Medical Cases: Asylum, Torture and EU Law

Case C-353/16 MP (Sri Lanka) v SSHD (ECLI:EU:C:2017:795) In this reference, the Supreme Court asked the CJEU to rule on the question whether a third country national, who had been tortured in the past but will not be tortured upon return, … Continue reading

Posted in Article 3, Asylum, CFR, CJEU, ECHR, European Union, International Law, Persecution, Refugee Convention, Removals, Sri Lanka, Statelessness, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Citizens’ Directive: Permanent Residence is a Prerequisite of Eligibility for Enhanced Protection

B and Vomero, Joined Cases C‑316/16 and C‑424/16, ECLI:EU:C:2018:256 As discussed in an earlier post, B and Vomero provided the CJEU with a fresh opportunity to rectify earlier mistakes – chances that were allegedly “squandered” in the cases of Rendón Marín (C‑165/14, … Continue reading

Posted in CFR, Citizens Directive, Citizenship and Nationality, CJEU, Deportation, European Union, Free Movement, Immigration Act 2014, Immigration Act 2016, Permanent Residence, UKSC | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

Supreme Court: Reference to CJEU on Kefalah Children

SM (Algeria) v Entry Clearance Officer, UK Visa Section [2018] UKSC 9 (14 February 2018) This appeal concerning legal guardianship under the Islamic “kefalah” system provided the Supreme Court the opportunity to refer three questions to the CJEU. The justices … Continue reading

Posted in Adoption, Algeria, Article 8, CFR, Children, Citizens Directive, CJEU, ECHR, Entry Clearance, European Union, Free Movement, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , | 1 Comment

Free Movement: ‘Spouse’ Includes Same Sex Spouse

Coman v Inspectoratul General pentru Imigrări (C‑673/16, ECLI:EU:C:2018:2, AG Wathelet’s Opinion) Marriage between persons of the same sex is prohibited under article 277(1), (2) and (4) of the Romanian Civil Code. Relu Adrian Coman – a Romanian – cohabited with Robert Clabourn … Continue reading

Posted in Article 8, CFR, Citizens Directive, CJEU, ECHR, European Union, Families, Free Movement, Permanent Residence, Spouses | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

Case Preview: Bashir and Others v SSHD

In her Christmas speech to British forces in Akrotiri, the prime minister celebrated the downfall of ISIS. Temporarily relieved from the turbulence of domestic and European politics, a triumphant Theresa May stressed that British military bases in Cyprus – the … Continue reading

Posted in Appeals, Article 14, Asylum, Brexit, CFR, Court of Appeal, ECHR, Human Trafficking, International Law, Italy, Judicial Review, Persecution, Politics, Refugee Convention, Settlement, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Zambrano Carers: ‘Benefits Tourism’ Appeal Dismissed

R (HC) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions [2017] UKSC 73 (15 November 2017) Lady Hale found this to be a “very troubling” case but she agreed with Lord Carnwath that the appeal had to be dismissed. The … Continue reading

Posted in Article 14, CFR, Children, Citizenship and Nationality, CJEU, Court of Appeal, ECHR, European Union, Families, Judicial Review, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Case Preview: B (Algeria) v SSHD

The respondent “B” entered the UK illegally in 1993. He is probably from Algeria. But since he refuses to identify himself his real nationality is unknown. Earlier this month, the Supreme Court heard the SSHD’s appeal on the issue whether, … Continue reading

Posted in Article 3, Article 5, Bail, CFR, Court of Appeal, Deportation, Detention, Dyson JSC/MR, ECHR, Proportionality, Public Interest, SIAC, Terrorism, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Appeal Rights and EFMs: The End of Sala

Khan v Secretary of State for the Home Department & Anor [2017] EWCA Civ 1755 (09 November 2017) Appeal rights in a hostile environment are a hotly debated topic in immigration law. Enforcement officials are notorious for denying appeal rights … Continue reading

Posted in Appeals, Article 8, CFR, Citizens Directive, CJEU, Court of Appeal, ECHR, European Union, Immigration Act 2014, Judges, OFMs, Proportionality, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

The Bad Citizen and EU Law

Arranz (EEA Regulations – Deportation – Test: Spain) [2017] UKUT 294 (IAC) (22 August 2017) Over the years, the CJEU has carved out a special status for those bad EU citizens whose extreme crimes totally transgress the laws of the … Continue reading

Posted in Article 5, Article 6, Article 7, Brexit, CFR, Citizens Directive, Citizenship and Nationality, CJEU, Deportation, ECHR, European Union, False Statements, Human Rights Act, Permanent Residence, Proportionality, Refugee Convention, Terrorism, Tribunals, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment