Category Archives: Adoption

Regulations give effect to Kafala judgment in SM (Algeria)

The Immigration (European Economic Area) (Amendment) Regulations 2019, which came into force on 15 August 2019, amend the Immigration (European Economic Area) Regulations 2016  (“the 2016 Regulations”) and give effect to the judgment of the Court of Justice of the … Continue reading

Posted in Adoption, Article 8, Citizens Directive, CJEU, ECHR, Entry Clearance, European Union, Free Movement | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

Free Movement and Kafala: CJEU Judgment in SM (Algeria)

SM (Enfant place sous kafala algerienne) (Citizenship of the European Union – “Direct descendant” – Judgment) (C-129/18, EU:C:2019:248) The CJEU has confirmed AG Campos Sánchez-Bordona’s opinion that a child in the guardianship of an EU citizen under the kafala system … Continue reading

Posted in Adoption, Article 8, Brexit, CFR, Children, Citizens Directive, CJEU, ECHR, ECOs, Entry Clearance, European Union, Families, Free Movement, Guardianship, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

AG Campos Sánchez-Bordona: Kafala children are not direct descendants but are other family members

SM v Entry Clearance Officer, UK Visa Section (C-129/18, EU:C:2019:140) In response to the reference made by the Supreme Court in SM (Algeria) [2018] UKSC 9 (see here), AG Campos Sánchez-Bordona advised the CJEU to declare that a child in the … Continue reading

Posted in Adoption, Article 8, CFR, Children, Citizens Directive, CJEU, Court of Appeal, ECHR, European Union, Free Movement, Lady Hale, UKSC, UNCRC | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Supreme Court: Reference to CJEU on Kefalah Children

SM (Algeria) v Entry Clearance Officer, UK Visa Section [2018] UKSC 9 (14 February 2018) This appeal concerning legal guardianship under the Islamic “kefalah” system provided the Supreme Court the opportunity to refer three questions to the CJEU. The justices … Continue reading

Posted in Adoption, Algeria, Article 8, CFR, Children, Citizens Directive, CJEU, ECHR, Entry Clearance, European Union, Free Movement, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , | 1 Comment

Inherent Jurisdiction: Article 8 and Adoption

W v The Secretary of State for the Home Department [2017] EWHC 1733 (Fam) (07 July 2017) Nigerians are automatically associated with corruption and deception. The magnitude of the problem is such that even honest citizens of Nigeria – who … Continue reading

Posted in Adoption, Article 8, Children, Dependants, ECHR, Entry Clearance, Families, Immigration Rules, Inherent Jurisdiction, PBS | Tagged , , , , , | Leave a comment

Case Preview: SM (Algeria) (Appellant) v Entry Clearance Officer, UK Visa Section (Respondent)

Three years ago in AA (Somalia) v ECO (Addis Ababa) [2013] UKSC 81, the Supreme Court considered whether a Somali child in her brother-in-law’s care under the doctrine of Kafalah – a process of legal guardianship and the Islamic equivalent … Continue reading

Posted in Adoption, Algeria, Article 8, CFR, Children, Citizens Directive, Entry Clearance, Immigration Rules, Islam, UKSC | Tagged , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Loss of Habitual Residence: Legal Limbo and the Modern Law

In Re B (A Child) [2016] UKSC 4 (3 February 2016) Perhaps facts never get more interesting than they are in this case. Then again, neither do laws. Under section 377 of the Pakistan Penal Code (Act XLV of 1860), … Continue reading

Posted in Adoption, Article 6, Article 8, Children, CJEU, ECHR, Families, Hague Convention, India, Nationality, Pakistan, UKSC, USSC | Tagged , , , , , , , | Leave a comment